Monday, June 2, 2014
Thing practiced: overenthusing
Depending on your level of geekiness, you may have heard Apple’s announcement today that a team of mutant programming virtuosos has been working—in secret, for years—on a new language that will replace Objective-C as the lingua franca of the iPhone, iPad, and Mac – plus presumably whatever Apple televisual, home-automating, and/or wearable products are to come. The circle is—at last—complete.
The language is called Swift—and, if you’re interested, Apple has released a 500-page ebook detailing the language to let developers get started today.
Technically, Swift has some nice characteristics:
It’s fast. Like C, C++, and Objective-C, Swift compiles down to native code—there’s no VM or interpreter slowing things down at run time. Coupled with some serious compiler optimization, this should make Swift performant enough for any size of application.
It’s safe. Unlike Objective-C, Swift code is proven safe at compile time—that is, no compiled code can cause an access violation at run time (unless we explicitly mark our code as unsafe).
It has first-class functions. Functions can be nested within other functions, passed as arguments to other functions, and stored as values.
It has closures.
Along with the code for a function, Swift stores the relevant parts of the environment that was current when the function was created. (This makes higher-order functions like
fold possible and powerful.)
It supports both immutable values and variables.
Languages usually choose one or the other, but Swift has both—just type
let for immutable values and
var for (mutable) variables.
Swift is statically-typed, but types can be inferred. If the type-checker can tell what type the value/variable should be, we don’t have to write it.
And types can be generic.
Functions and methods are automatically generalized by the type-checker, so our functions can be used across compatible parameter types—without manually writing overloads, and without resorting to
id and using casts everywhere.
Swift gives us namespaces, with its module system.
Memory is managed automatically, and without pointers.
Like Objective-C post-ARC, Swift uses compiler magic to track and deallocate instances as needed. We don’t need to explicitly specify
weak references any more, or use
* for reference types. This makes iOS programming more accessible (pro/con), though not as easy as with garbage collection. And since ARC happens at compile time, there’s no performance hit at run time.
Swift has tuples (or product types). We can group multiple values into one compound data type, without using container classes/structs.
It has very-special enums (or sum types). A Swift enum contains a value of one of various specified types. We can use these like plain C integer enums if we like, but Swift enums go further: Swift lets each enum type carry data.
It has pattern-matching to go with tuples and enums. Values can be matched against patterns to decompose them concisely.
And much more: lazy properties, property observers, class/struct extensions, buffed-up structs, option types, function currying, type aliasing, and more. And Swift manages to do all this while maintaining smooth interoperability with Objective-C classes.
(For an admittedly-trivial demo of some of these features, here’s code for Minesweeper in Swift.)
With ideas drawn (in Chris Lattner’s words) from Haskell, Rust, C#, Ruby, Python, and the last twenty years of PL research and practice, Swift looks like a language even programming-languages nerds should find pleasing. It delivers what everyone wants from a language: an elegant way to interface with software.
More important than Swift’s elegance, though, is its context. Programming languages rise and fall not on language quality but on more-practical factors: which libraries and tools are available, what the industry standard is, and what’s most likely to get you a job. Swift is the first place all these factors converge: a highly relevant platform, a sole platform owner with the will to impose a standard, a human-friendly toolset, and a newly-modern language.
Have you ever wanted to start programming on iOS? Today’s the day.